We now have added "Informational Posts" which are tidbits of topical information that may come in handy at some point.
Right now they are mostly about Treatment Costs.



There is relatively little known about how criminal justice system actors perceive sex offenders and the fairness, efficacy, and scope of policies aimed at sex offenders. Similarly, there is sparse research that specifically examines the attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of prison wardens.

Following in the footsteps of earlier research (Tewksbury & Mustaine, 2011; Tewksbury, Mustaine, & Payne, 2011, in press), the present study addresses these gaps by considering the attitudes and beliefs toward sex offenders held by wardens.

This examination includes perceptions about sex offenders as prison inmates, sex offender registration, community notification, and residency restrictions. Further, this research assesses the utility of the 18-item Community Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders (CATSO) scale (Church, Wakeman, Miller, Clements, & Sun, 2008), which was advocated for use with criminal justice system actors, to determine whether or not the instrument can be effectively utilized with wardens.

Findings and policy implications are discussed. ..Source.. by David Patrick Connor, B.A., Northern Kentucky University. A thesis with help of Richard Tewksbury, Thesis Director

Prison-based Sex Offender Treatment Programs

Table 4 presents prison wardens’ attitudes and beliefs regarding institutional sex offender treatment programs. Among wardens, most (83.6%) feel that changing the behavior of sex offenders is a significant challenge facing correctional administrators. A majority (71.6%) believes that their jurisdiction provides effective sex offender treatment programs for incarcerated sex offenders. However, more than one-half (62.7%) do not believe that sex offender treatment programs are more effective in prison environments than community settings. At the same time, most (84.9%) feel that sex offender treatment programs should be designed around individual offenders as opposed to being standardized treatment programs.

Working with Sex Offenders: The Perceptions and Experiences of Professionals and Paraprofessionals

January 1999:


The last 20 years have witnessed an increase in the attention paid to crimes of sexual violence. Academic research, social services, and the general public have responded to the steady rise in these crimes by subjecting them to increased scrutiny and address. Professionals and paraprofessionals responsible for the processing, supervision, and treatment of sex offenders are under increasing pressure.

This study investigated the perceptions and experiences of professionals and paraprofessionals working with sex offenders. Such research is important because these perceptions influence practice. Using a semistructured interview schedule, 23 men and women were interviewed about various aspects of their work with sex offenders for between 1 and 2 hours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis.

The findings are discussed in terms of professionals’and paraprofessionals’ perceptions of sex offenders and their offences and the manner in which such perceptions affect their professional practice. ..Source.. by Susan Lea and Tim Auburn and Karen Kibblewhite, Department of Psychology, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus Plymouth, PL4 8AA, UK

Psychologists’ Attitudes toward Sex Offenders

July 2010:

This study explored licensed psychologists’ attitudes toward sex offenders and the relationship of these attitudes to psychologists’ demographics, training, and professional experience. Participants included 272 psychologists, primarily members of individual state psychological associations, who completed an online survey.

Participants answered demographic questions and items about their training and professional experience. Additionally, they completed the Attitudes Toward Sex Offenders Scale (Hogue, 1993). Results indicated that attitudes toward sex offenders did not differ significantly based on gender but did vary according to participants’ locations.

Participants who had received over 30 hr of sex offender training had significantly more positive attitudes than did those without any training or with less than 11 hr of training. Psychologists who worked professionally with sex offenders demonstrated more positive attitudes toward sex offenders than did those who did not work with sex offenders.

Those who did not work with sex offenders had significantly more negative attitudes than psychologists who had worked with sex offenders for 6 to 20 years. There were no significant differences based on psychologists’ primary role with sex offenders (i.e., treatment or assessment). ..Source.. by Simon, Samantha (2010). Psychologists’ Attitudes toward Sex Offenders (Master's thesis, Pacific University).

An Examination of Counseling Professionals / Paraprofessionals Attitudes Toward Adolescent Sexual Offenders

September 2013:

One hundred thirty-three counseling professionals/paraprofessionals were recruited from adolescent residential treatment programs located in Michigan. Participants were assessed using the Community Attitudes Toward Sex Offender Scale (CATSO). Of the participants, 32.3% (n = 43) of the participants were female and 67.7% (n = 90) were male. Years of experience working directly with adolescent sexual offenders of participants ranged from 0 to 18 years (M = 2.48 years, SD = 3.48). The number of months participants received sexual offender training ranged from 0 to 60 (M = 3.44, SD = 9.48). No statistical differences in attitudes were found between females and males toward adolescent sexual offenders.

No statistically significant relationship was found between years of experience and the four factors on the CATSO survey (Social Isolation, Capacity to Change, Severity/Dangerousness, and Deviancy). A significant relationship was found between experience and the Deviancy factor. No statistically significant relationship was found between months of training and attitudes. Overall, attitudes toward adolescent sexual offenders were positive. ..Full PDF Source.. by Edward C. Jones

Collateral Effects of the Media on Sex Offender Reintegration: Perceptions of Sex Offenders, Professionals, and the Lay Public

February 2012:


Aim/Background: Sexual offending results in devastating consequences for victims and is of great concern to the public; prevention of re-offending is an important endeavour. The media has a marked influence on public views and frequently draws attention to sex offenders, often producing sensational stories about them. Doing so may affect sex offenders' opportunities for reintegration into the community, by affecting their reception by the public and thereby increasing their risk of recidivism.

Methods: The current study surveyed 167 sex offenders, professionals who work with them, and university students regarding their perceptions of how the media portrays sex offenders and the effects these portrayals have on sex offender reintegration. The potential moderating effect of attitudes was evaluated using the CATSO.

Results: Overall, participants indicated that the media portrays sex offenders negatively. The sample also identified a number of specific sex offender reintegration factors, such as housing, jobs, and relationships, as being negatively impacted by the media's portrayal of sex offenders. No significant effects of attitudes, as measured by the CATSO, were observed.

Conclusions: The overall sample agreed that the media presents sex offenders in a negative manner, that media portrayals of sex offenders affect public attitudes towards sex offenders, and that these negative portrayals affect a number of specific reintegration factors (i.e., housing, employment, etc). Due to the relationship between community reintegration and recidivism, it was concluded that the link between media portrayals of sex offenders and reintegration should be explored further. ..Source.. by Gabriela Corabian1, Neil Hogan2

1 Educational Psychology Department, University of Alberta, Canada
2 Psychology Department, University of Saskatchewan, Canada