We now have added "Informational Posts" which are tidbits of topical information that may come in handy at some point.
Right now they are mostly about Treatment Costs.

Why is youth suicide rate in Michigan so high?

2009 Michigan:

See also important Michigan historical study:

A Brighton boy's hanging death led to special legislation, but problem remains

On a February evening in 2003, while his dad fixed dinner, 12-year-old Chase Edwards hanged himself in an upstairs bathroom.

His father, Jeff Edwards of Brighton, said no one -- friends, family or teachers -- had realized Chase was not just a moody kid. In hindsight, Edwards said, the artistic boy, who would have turned 19 last Thursday, had left several clues no one connected.

"People were surprised and shocked, thinking it must have been a mistake," he said.

Michigan youths are more likely than the average American youth to attempt suicide, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In its last survey in 2007, 9% of Michigan youths surveyed admitted attempting suicide (compared to a national average of 7%) and 27% said they had been depressed.

The Edwards family fought for a law in their son's name encouraging Michigan schools to teach about depression and suicide awareness, but it's largely unenforced -- even as federal officials say suicide is the third leading killer of teens in the United States.

In March, a federal task force made a landmark recommendation that all youths be screened for depression.

But the Edwards family and others said they believe by the time some kids get help, it's too late. They believe the conversation has to start in schools.

Little funding, few requirements hinder efforts
When Laurie Graf asks a morning health class at Tower High School in Warren Woods to describe people with mental illness, the Michigan School of Professional Psychology student nods as the teens throw out "crazy," "nuts" and "psycho."

The 30-year-old asks if she looks crazy, and two dozen heads shake no.

Then Graf reveals she's struggled with depression and suicide. The mood in the class shifts. The ninth- and tenth-graders start asking questions.

Juvenile Suicides, 1981–1998

2004 National:


Between 1981 and 1998, 20,775 juveniles ages 7–17 committed suicide in the United States—nearly as many as were homicide or cancer victims. Males were the victims in 78% of these juvenile suicides. Over the same period, the suicide rate for American Indian juveniles was far higher than for any other race.

Statistics on juvenile suicides, and juvenile deaths in general, come from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS), compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). NVSS summarizes information from death certificates filed in state vital statistics offices and includes cause-of-death information reported by attending physicians, medical examiners, or coroners. Analyses of these data for the period 1981–98 uncovered the following:

The number of youth ages 13–14 who committed suicide in the U.S. equaled the number who were murdered.

Of the juveniles who committed suicide, 66% of the males and 62% of the females were 17 years old.

Sixty-two percent of juvenile suicides were committed with a firearm, 24% resulted from suffocation (primarily hanging), and 10% were caused by poisoning.

Recidivism and Reoffense Rates of Adult Sex Offenders



Scores of studies have examined the recidivism rates of adult sex offenders. Reported rates vary widely and have cited to be as low as 3% (Minnesota Department of Corrections, 2007) and as high as 88% (Langevin, Curnoe, Federoff, Bennett, Langevin, Peever, Pettica, and Sandhu, 2004). Recidivism rates may differ from study to study because investigators sample from different offender populations, employ different methods of calculating recidivism, or employ different follow-up periods. It is also important to note that recidivism rates (the rates at which new offenses are detected) are not identical to reoffense rates (the rates at which new offenses actually occur) because both victims and offenders under-report the occurrence of sex crimes.

Recidivism Rates

I surveyed 48 studies which examined recidivism rates of adult sex offenders. The studies were conducted between 1980 and 2009. They included 37 individual studies and 11 meta-analyses (summary analyses of individual studies). I do not claim to have reviewed all existing studies of recidivism but I reviewed all that I found through 2007 (when the original version of this paper was posted) and I have included a number of the most quoted studies which have appeared since. I have endeavored to report the findings accurately. It is important to note, however, that this survey is not, in and of itself, a structured research study and it has not been subjected to peer review; it is simply my attempt to survey the literature as best as I could. ..Source.. by Stephen Brake, Ph.D. (His website)

Perpetrators Under-Report (Page-7 of report)

It is also understandable that offenders under-report because they wish to avoid prosecution and don’t want to be shunned by society. Some may desire to keep offending. However, sometimes offenders eventually disclose in treatment or in anonymous surveys that they have committed large numbers of offenses before they were first caught.

One study reported that adult sex offenders who were known to have an average of two victims (or a median of one victim) at the time of their arrest subsequently reported having an average of 184 victims (or a median of 26 victims) after taking polygraph tests while in treatment (Ahlmeyer, et al., 2000).

Another study found that child molesters in treatment eventually report having committed an average of 88 crimes each (Underwood, Patch, Cappelletty, and Wolfe, 1999). [Other researchers have similarly reported in studies of adolescents that the number of sex offenses disclosed by offenders in treatment increased by a factor of three (Emerick and Dutton, 1993) or five (James, 1993) following polygraph testing.]

Abel and his colleagues reported that adult sex offenders who were guaranteed anonymity disclosed having committed an average of 533 sex offenses over a 12-year-period before being detected (Abel, Becker, Cunningham-Rathner, Mittelman, and Rouleau, 1988; Abel, Becker, Mittelman, Cunningham-Rathner, Rouleau, and Murphy, 1987). These findings prompted the authors to conclude that “arrest records of paraphiliacs do not provide a reliable indication of the true scope of paraphilic acts”. In another study, it was found that rapists given assurances that their responses would remain anonymous reported having six times more victims that were indentified from official records and that each of the child molesters in the study reported having hundreds of previously unknown sexual contacts with children (Weinrott and Saylor, 1991). The authors concluded that there is an “iceberg of undocumented offenses beneath the tip of official records”. ...

8 Things Everyone Should Know About Sexual Abuse & Sexual Offenders

June 2014:

Sexual abuse is a pervasive yet preventable worldwide problem that impacts everyone - individuals, communities, institutions, and society as a whole.

Education is essential in the prevention of sexual abuse, but educational efforts are often impaired by the numerous myths and misconceptions that abound about sexual abuse and those who perpetrate sexual abuse.

The questions and answers below are designed to provide up to date information about sexual abuse and those who perpetrate sexually abusive behaviors.

1. What is sexual abuse?
Sexual abuse is a broad term ...continued...

Sexting and Sexual Behavior Among Middle School Students

June 2014:

OBJECTIVE: It is unknown if “sexting” (ie, sending/receiving sexually explicit cell phone text or picture messages) is associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behavior among early adolescents, as has been found for high school students. To date, no published data have examined these relationships exclusively among a probability sample of middle school students.

METHODS: A probability sample of 1285 students was collected alongside the 2012 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles middle schools. Logistic regressions assessed the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual activity and risk behavior (ie, unprotected sex).

RESULTS: Twenty percent of students with text-capable cell phone access reported receiving a sext and 5% reported sending a sext. Students who text at least 100 times per day were more likely to report both receiving (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4) and sending (OR: 4.5) sexts and to be sexually active (OR: 4.1). Students who sent sexts (OR: 3.2) and students who received sexts (OR: 7.0) were more likely to report sexual activity. Compared with not being sexually active, excessive texting and receiving sexts were associated with both unprotected sex (ORs: 4.7 and 12.1, respectively) and with condom use (ORs: 3.7 and 5.5, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Because early sexual debut is correlated with higher rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancies, pediatricians should discuss sexting with young adolescents because this may facilitate conversations about sexually transmitted infection and pregnancy prevention. Sexting and associated risks should be considered for inclusion in middle school sex education curricula. ..Source.. by Eric Rice, PhD and Jeremy Gibbs, MSW and Hailey Winetrobe, MPH and Harmony Rhoades, PhD and Aaron Plant, MPH and Jorge Montoya, PhD and Timothy Kordic, MA